What is NMN? The ultimate guide

Is it possible that a simple compound could be the answer to our aging woes and Longevity ideology?

 

Active Hiking NMN

As laboratory research continues to shed light on the prospective effects on longevity and aging, NMN supplements have grown in popularity. In the fight against aging, NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide) is a crucial chemical. It not only boosts energy levels but also has positive impacts on a variety of body systems. In this comprehensive guide, we will discuss everything you need to know about the NMN supplement and reaping its full advantages related to aging and other medical health conditions.
The recognition of aging as a disease opens the door to new research into innovative medicines to prevent or treat age-related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and neurodegeneration. Epigenetic changes, genomic instability, mitochondrial malfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell fatigue, and dysregulated intercellular communication are all signs of aging.
In reality, aging is described as a "cascade of robustness breakdown induced by a decline in systemic NAD+ production and the resulting functional impairments in sensitive organs and tissues. An increase in intracellular NAD+ levels activates survival-enhancing changes across the kingdom of life, including increased energy generation and upregulation of cellular repair.
So, the most important question arises here: what is NAD+ and what is its relation with NMN. To answer this question, let's talk first about NMN.

 

What exactly is NMN?

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a naturally occurring chemical found in all living things. It is a ribonucleotide, a fundamental structural unit of nucleic acid RNA, at the molecular level. It has a nicotinamide group, a ribose group, and a phosphate group in its natural state. It is a precursor molecule for the important chemical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), and it is one method for increasing NAD+ levels in the cell. Our bodies need this chemical to make NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).


What Is NAD+

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, first discovered in 1906, is generated naturally in our bodies from NMN and Vitamin B3 and is found in every cell of our bodies.
It serves two primary purposes:
  • Convert your food into energy.
  • Regulate Proteins that aid in the regulation of other biological activities
You need NAD to help you move energy into your cells; it drives our mitochondria, which are the "batteries of our cells." NAD+ is a molecule that functions as a coenzyme in a number of important biological activities, including cellular energy production, DNA repair, and sirtuin activity (enzymes involved in aging).


These processes would not be possible without NAD+ acting as a coenzyme, and life would not exist. Surprisingly, accumulating evidence reveals that NAD+ levels decrease with age, a phenomenon that experts now regard as a characteristic of aging and opposite to do not age desire. Many age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, and cancer, are caused by low NAD+ levels.

 

Aging Eyes

Most of us have half the NAD+ levels we had in our 20s by the time we reach 50. This could be one of the primary reasons why our energy levels decline as we age. Because NMN aids in the production of NAD+, it has been demonstrated to have a number of positive effects, indicating that it may be useful in the treatment of chronic illnesses. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and obesity are all examples of this.
Furthermore, recent anti-aging research suggests that NMN may be a game-changer in terms of increasing our life and health spans.


NAD+ Some Important Functions

Mitochondrial NAD+ Functions as a Coenzyme
NAD+ is particularly important in metabolic activities, including glycolysis, the TCA cycle (also known as the Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle), and the electron transport chain, which takes place in our mitochondria and is how we get cellular energy. NAD+ binds to enzymes and transfers electrons between molecules in its capacity as a ligand. NAD+ functions through a cellular mechanism.

 

NAD+ Assists in the Prevention of DNA Damage

As organisms age, environmental factors such as radiation, pollution, and inaccuracy in DNA replication cause DNA damage. The accumulation of DNA damage, according to contemporary aging theories, is the primary cause of aging. The 'molecular machinery' to repair the damage is found in almost all cells. This mechanism consumes NAD+ and energy molecules. As a result, severe DNA damage might deplete crucial cellular resources.

 

Sirtuins Activation

Sirtuins, commonly known as the "guardians of genes," are newly discovered proteins that play an important role in cellular health. Sirtuins are a group of enzymes that play a role in cellular stress and damage repair. They also have a role in insulin secretion and the aging process and aging-related disorders like diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. NAD+ is required for sirtuin activation.

 

Metabolic Disorders

One of the most important factors in sustaining good mitochondrial functioning and consistent energy output is NAD+. The amount of NAD+ in the body decreases with age and a high-fat diet. NAD+ boosters have been proven in studies to reduce diet-related and age-related weight gain in mice and increase their exercise ability, even in elderly animals.

Aging Runners


NAD+ vs. NMN: What's the Difference?

The fundamental distinction between Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) is that NMN is an NAD+ precursor (comes before NAD+), yet the two are mutually exclusive.
They both have the same nicotinamide nucleotide, but they differ in the other nucleotide, with NMN having ribose and NAD having adenine - the NMN molecule is smaller than the NAD+ molecule.
NAD+ is somewhat more accessible (absorbed into the bloodstream) than NMN, with NMN having more visible physical effects and NAD+ promoting greater mental benefits.


NAD+ / NMN Pathway: how it works in our bodies?

Vitamin B3 is a well-known building block for Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ is generated and regulated in the body through a symphony of linked changes. It is also commonly acknowledged that NMN is a powerful NAD+ precursor. Though minor amounts of NMN can be found in fruits and vegetables such as avocados, broccoli, cabbage, edamame, and cucumbers, most NMN in mammals is generated from vitamin B3 in the form of nicotinamide. NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nicotinamide to NMN, which exists in both an intracellular and extracellular form.
When taken as a supplement, NAD+ has a low bioavailability, which means it doesn't have much of an effect once in the body. However, NAD+ contains numerous precursors or intermediates—molecules that undergo enzymatic processes to become NAD+. Scientists have looked into two of these intermediates in greater depth than others: nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), and the results are promising. Supplementing with these precursors has been shown in several studies to boost NAD+ levels and extend the longevity of yeast, worms, and mice. Other animal studies have also shown that increasing NAD+ levels can improve muscle production, cardiovascular function, and glucose metabolism.


What are the health benefits of nmn?

When combined with an active lifestyle and a balanced diet, NMN can raise NAD+ levels throughout the body.
Some of the most visible benefits include:
Increased levels of energy


One of NAD+'s many jobs is to assist your body in converting food into usable energy. The levels of NAD+ in our bodies drop as we age, resulting in reduced energy levels in general. Increased energy levels are one of the most visible benefits of supplementing with NMN because it is a precursor to NAD+.


Ageing and NMN

One of the most groundbreaking findings of the NMN research was its capacity to slow down and possibly reverse the effects of aging. NMN inhibits the expression of genes that influence aging and, as previously stated, increases SIRTS, which are anti-aging.


According to Shin-ichiro Imai, NMN may boost adult human metabolism, making it similar to that of someone ten or twenty years younger. His research group is now looking at NMN in humans.


Human trials are also being conducted by David Sinclair , a famous anti-aging researcher at Harvard University who is known for his work on resveratrol, NAD+, and sirtuins. He takes NMN personally and claims that his lipid profile has improved considerably, he feels more energetic, and his blood indicators are closer to those of a 31-year-old at more than 50 years old.


Improved cardiac performance

NMN has been found to boost NAD+ levels in the heart, improve vascular function, and protect the heart against injury and failure. When you take NMN, your heart function and physical endurance will almost certainly increase.
Controls blood sugar levels.


NMN also aids in the regulation of blood sugar levels and the reduction of insulin resistance. It may also aid in the control of cholesterol levels. Taking NMN along with a nutritious diet and an active lifestyle will most likely help stabilize your blood sugar levels and reduce your risk of developing diabetes.


NMN Supplements How it works

According to current research, the change between NR and NMN is required for admission into only a few cell types. This leads experts to conclude that NMN is one of the most efficient ways to boost NAD synthesis. NMN supplements, on the other hand, are proven to have anti-aging properties independent of NAD generation.


NMN can be supplied directly to cells without converting to NAD, in addition to the NAD metabolic route. This mechanism is facilitated by recently discovered transport proteins, which increase in number as NAD levels decrease. NMN in this form contributes to cell energy and permits each of the anti-aging properties stated before to work.


Supplementing with NMN and NAD is a much more direct way of improving cell metabolism and, as a result, is a faster way of doing so. NMN has also been shown to increase insulin activity and synthesis, resulting in additional metabolic benefits and improved glucose tolerance. NMN supplements, in particular, can aid in the treatment of metabolic disorders such as diabetes, fatty liver disease, and obesity.

Active Friends


How long does it take for NMN to be completely effective?

If you take sublingual NMN as directed, it will enter your bloodstream and start working right away. According to the researchers, oral delivery of NMN in water converted to NAD+ within 15 minutes, and levels continued to grow for another hour. However, keep in mind that the NMN in these experiments was not administered sublingually.


However, it's vital to remember that in order to get the most out of any supplement, you'll need to take it for a long time. Normally three months is suggested.


Does NMN have any side effects?

There have been no recorded negative effects in persons who have taken NMN supplements thus far. The majority of NMN research has been done on mice and rats. The results have shown that it improves metabolism, liver, skin, muscle, and brain function, bone formation, vascular health, reproduction, immune system function, and lifespan.


Signs that NMN Supplements are working in your body

The first indicator should be that you feel more energized, have more endurance, and aren't as easily weary. Weight loss, lower blood glucose levels, feeling "fit" when completing cardiovascular exercises, and improved general physical and mental performance are all possible symptoms. It's crucial to remember that everyone is different, so you might not have the same effects or experience them in the same period of time as others.


Finally

NMN is still being studied, but it appears to have a lot of promise in terms of slowing, if not reversing, the indications of aging. NMN is a safe and effective approach to naturally enhance the levels of NAD+ in your body's cells, as well as all the benefits that come with it.
While the Fountain of Youth remains a distant vision that is unlikely to be realized anytime soon, anti-aging medicine science improves. Perhaps one day, you'll be able to swallow a series of compounds and relive your life as a teenager. Until then, NAD and NMN supplements might help to slow down the consequences of cell aging on your body.

 

Reference


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238909/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27127236/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17482543/
https://blog.insidetracker.com/nr-nmn-longevity-supplements-work-humans
https://www.lifespan.io/news/a-summary-of-nicotinamide-mononucleotide/
https://compoundingrxusa.com/blog/your-guide-to-nad-and-nmn-and-their-anti-aging-benefits/
https://www.nmn.com/precursors/what-is-nmn